What is disputed?
At the centre of the dispute between
What is the history of the dispute?
The accepted border is a result of a 1900 boundary agreement between colonial powers France (French Somaliland, now
The border at Ras Doumeira was, however, never demarcated. The area itself is a hill, and it was simply agreed that the northern slopes of hill were Italian, the southern slopes, French. Upon independence,
The first major post-colonial dispute arose when, in April 1996, a
Problems arose again in 2008, when the Eritreans occupied the hilltop. The circumstances surrounding this event are somewhat disputed. Djiboutian sources report that in January,
Eritrean sources, however, note that Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, met twice with Djiboutian officials, informing them that his country intended to build a demarcation on Ras Doumeira hill. It was not clear why
Both sides fortified the hill and manned it with military personnel, and clashes between the two sides broke out in June 2008. Despite the military might of
In June 2010, the two countries agreed to a Qatar-led mediation process, a move that was warmly welcomed by the African Union and the UN, although
The fact that
In September 2010, Isaias welcomed UN special representative for
For more information on this dispute, including consideration of the regional context, see the full Border Focus, here.